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29/10/2020
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Filippin: Iãallen imarikaniyen "inebgawen"


AUTHOR:  Ameskar Roland G. SIMBULAN

Translated by  Tasuqilt: Omar Mouffok


Manila (Filippin) – Ass-a, ula deg yimukan ibeεden akk γef temdinin deg Filippin, nezmer ad naf iserdasen imarikaniyen ay isellḥen arma d iγef n tcebbubt, yerna timeẓriwet-nsen teqqel d taγawsa n menwala γer medden. Aseggas-a, uwḍen εecṛa n yiseggasen ay-a (1999-2009) seg wasmi ay yestenya Useqqamu n Yemγaren (Sénat) n Filippin, ay-n umi semman Visiting Forces Agreement (VFA – Amtawa n Yiγallen Inebgawen). Amtawa-a (ay yettsutenyan akked Yiwunak Yeddukklen deg 27 Mayyu 1999), yerra agama-nneγ (campagne) d tama ay deg iserdasen imarikaniyen ed wid n Filippin ttgen iluγma (exercices) ay deg sseqdacen, s tlelli, rrṣ̣aṣ̣ ed yemrigen (leslaḥat) n tidet, yerna s way-a, nγan, jerḥen yerna εeyyben aṭas n medden seg weγref-nneγ (cceεb), gar-asen ddan ula d igerdan. Iγallen-a ibeṛṛaniyen kecmen-d γer tmurt-nneγ war ipaspuṛen, war ma yettunekf-asen-d ttesriḥat sγur tedwant-nneγ (douane) neγ yimeẓla-nneγ n yinig (services d’émigration), war ma yettunekf-asen-d ttesriḥ sγur yimeẓla-nneγ n tdawsa (ṣ̣ṣ̣eḥḥa), yerna war ttesriḥat n tenheṛt, yerna nehhṛen tikeṛwas ed yikumyan-nsen war ma ssiggzen-ten (mmeṛkan-ten) deg tmurt-nneγ.

 


Tameskant (tamesbanit) mgal n Wemtawa n Yiγallen Inebgawen deg 2008 

Iserdasen-a nγan, εerḍen ad nγen, uwḍen tisednan neγ tεeddan fell-asent yerna sqedcen iγil ed yimezdaγen-nneγ n ugama (campagne) war ma ttuεaqben, am wakk-n ay ssexṣ̣aren, daγen, tawennaḍt (environnement) n tmurt-nneγ. D acu kan, ”Amtawa n Yiγallen Inebgawen” yekfa-asen azref ad gen ay-a akk.


Ugar n 40.000 n yiserdasen imarikaniyen ay d-ikecmen akal n Filippin, yerna llan deg wugar n 25 n temnaḍin

(pronvinces), seg wasmi ay tettustenya Wemtyawa n Yiγallen Inebgawen deg 1999. Iserdasen-a usan-d deg wugar n 78 n yiγerruba iserdasiyen imarikaniyen, yerna llan gar-asen ula d imawayen n yisafagen (porte-avions), iγerruba imezgaren (croiseurs), tineḍḍabin (sous-marins) ay d-yuwyen yid-sen imrigen aγsiyen (armes nucléaires), yerna ay-a yella-d mgal n tmenḍawt (constitution) n Filippin ay imenεen anekcum n yemrigen aγsiyen γer wakk timiwa n tmurt.

Amtawa n Yiγallen Inebgawen d netta ay d tuccḍa tameqrant akk yellan deg tγawsiwin-nneγ n beṛṛa, ass-a, 17 n yiseggasen sdeffir ma neγleq isaduren (bases) iserdasiyen imarikaniyen deg tmurt-nneγ, deg 1992. Amtawa-a d lεaṛ γef tmurt-nneγ, imi ay iqeddec i nnfeε n yiwen kan yidis, yerna tamurt-nneγ ur tesεi seg-s nnfeε. Amtawa-a d rregmat i tmenḍawt n Filippin ay iḍemnen ”aḥuddu n lqanun”, imi Amtawa-a yekfa izerfan usligen (spéciaux) i yiγallen imsellḥen ibeṛṛaniyen deg wakal n Filippin.

Amtawa n Yiγallen Inebgawen yesseγli s wazal n weγref-nneγ (cceεb), ur iquder izerfan n weγref-nneγ akk-n ad ttwaḥekmen s lqanun. Γef way-a, aṭas n Yifilippiniyen, seg wakk timiwa n tmurt, ttkemmilen sskanayen-d urfan-nsen ed ssutturen ad yettwakkes Wemtawa-a (accord). Yuγ lḥal, Amtawa-a yesskanay-aγ ur nelli d tamurt yesεa lḥeṛma, yesεan tanaya (souveraineté).

Amtawa n Yiγallen Inebgawen d amedya (lemtel) n dyiri gar yimedyaten niḍen n yemtawaten ay d-ssumren (proposer) neγ ara yettṛajun ad ttustenyin, am Wemtawa gar Filippin ed Ustṛalya γef Yiγallen Inebgawen, ara yettṛajun ad yettustenyi deg Useqqamu n Yemγaren (Sénat), neγ imtawaten yecban wa, ara d-tessewjad Filippin ad ten-testenyi akked Singapur ed Ziland Tamaynut. Imtawaten-a akk sseqdacen win yettustenyan akked Yiwunak Yeddukklen d amedya ara yettwaḍefren.

Amtawa n Yiγallen Inebgawen yettqadar n lqanun akked d tmenḍawt* ?

*constitution


Axxam n Ccṛeε Aεlayan n Filippin, deg 2000 ed 2009, yenna-d Amtawa n Yiγallen Inebgawen yettakf kan ttesriḥ i yiγallen imarikaniyen ad gen iluγma (entraînements) akked yiγallen ifilippiniyen, am wid-nni ay d-yettilin deg Balikatan (tayet-γer-tayet), akked kra n yiluγma n trebbaε timecṭuḥin n yiserdasen n snat-a n tmura. Amtawa-a ur yettakf azref i Yimarikaniyen ad bnun isaduren (bases) neγ tisersiyin (installations), imi iγallen imarikaniyen taswiεt-a kan ay llan deg-a, yerna, yiwen wass ad ffγen seg tmurt. Daγen, Amtawa n Yiγallen Inebgawen ur yettajja iγallen imarikaniyen ad ttekkin deg yimenγi mgal tinekriwin (révoltes) deg tmurt n Filippin. 

D acu kan, seg 2003 d asawen, Congress amarikani yessuffeγ-d tiftarin (documents) n umeṣ̣ruf (budget) ay d-yennan la ttwabnayen ”yisaduren imahlanen inaẓiyen (bases opérationnelles avancées)” deg Filippin. Ay-a yekcef-it-id s ttfaṣ̣il Herbert Docena deg wacḥal n yimagraden (articles) ay yettekkan deg tuddsa (organisation) n Focus on the Global South (Docena 2006). Tisersiyen (installations) n yiγallen imarikaniyen n Joint Special Operations Task Force-Philippines qqlent qeddcent s teγzef n useggas deg tmurt. Iγallen-a, naqal, llan γγarenè-asen Tamhelt n Tlelli ara idumen deg Filippin. Aγlif amarikini n temḥaddit, seg melmi kan, i wakk-n ”ad yesnerni isaduren”-nnes deg tegzirt n Mindanao, deg Filippin, iga yiwen n leεqed n 14,4 n yimelyunen n yidulaṛen (650 n yimelyunen n yipesoten n Filippin) akked yiwet n teṛmist (ccarika), Global Contingency Services LLC. Kra seg tsersiyin-a ttwabnant sdaxel n yegriren iserdasiyen (camps militaires) ifilippiniyen, yerna nezmer ad tent-naf deg waṭas n tmiwa n tegzirt n Mindanao. Deg tidet, tisersiyin-a qeddcent s teγzef n useggas, yerna sseqdacen-tent d isaduren i lmend n leqdic aserdasi, aεiwen, umel (renseignement) akked wesleγmu (entraînement) i lmend n yimenγi mgal n tnekriwin (révoltes) ay d-yettilin deg Filippin. Maca Amtawa n Yiγallen Inebgawen akked Wexxam n Ccṛeε Aεlayan n Flippin ur kfin ttesriḥ i Yimarikaniyen ad gen akk ay-a.

Dduṛ n yiγallen imarikaniyen deg yimenγi mgal n tnekriwin

Iwunak Yeddukklen sseqdacen Filippin d inegmi (laboratoire), yerna ay-a s yisem n yiluγma (exercices) iserdasiyen ara d-yettilin deg Balikatan. Iwunak Yeddukklen εerrḍen iberdan imaynuten n yimenγi mgal n tnekriwin, yerna iberdan-a bγan ad ten-sqedcen deg yemgura (ṭṭradat) ay bγan Yimarikaniyen ad ten-gen deg tmura niḍen. Gar yiberdan-a, nezmer ad d-nebder ”tarrayt n wesnefli n tγellist (approche du développement de la sécurité)” i lmend n yimenγi mgal n tnekriwin.

S umata, iγallen imarikaniyen ay iqeddcen deg tmura niḍen ”sleγmayen (entraîner) tirebbaε timecṭuḥin n yiγallen n tmurt-nni ay deg llan, ttekkayen deg leqdicat n uεiwen n medden, am wakk-n ay ttekkayen deg way-n umi ttinin ”amgaru asnafsi (guerre psychologique)””.  D acu kan, llan kra n lecγal ”yeffγen i leεwayed”

ttgen-ten daγen yiγallen imarikaniyen s wemεiwen akked tnegga (agences) ay iqeddcen i lmend n tenneflit (développement) am USAID, neγ tinegga niḍen am U.S. Institute for Peace (Asudu amarikani n Talwit), NED (National Endowment for Democracy – Tasebdadt tamarikanit n tugdut), atg.


Ajiniṛal amarikani T. Galvin yenna-d, deg yiwet n temlilit n Useqqamu amarikani n Yemγaren (Sénat) llan ula d Iγallen Usligen (forces spéciales) imarikaniyen deg tmura n beṛṛa, ttusseqdacen deg ”tigawt tusridt (actions directes)” am ”leqdicat n yezla (commandos) imecṭuḥen”, d lecγal yettwaxdamen s ”tazzla yerna war ma yebna fell-asen weεdaw”, ma ulac, iserdasen-a n yiγallen usligen ttilin daγen deg Filippin i wakk-n ad d-kfen afus n lemεawna deg tγawsiwin n laman, umel (renseignement) yerzan imenγi akked telγut (communications). (Galvin 1987). Nnig way-a, yiwen n lqanun aselkam (exécutif), lqanun 12333, ay d-yessuffeγ uselway n Yiwunak Yeddukklen deg yiseggasen n 1980, yettakf azref (lḥeqq) i yiγallen imarikaniyen yellan deg beṛṛa, ad gen ”lecγal usligen (spéciaux)” niḍen menγir asleγmu (entraînement) n yiγallen n tmurt-nni ay deg llan (win umi γγaren Mobile Training Teams, MTT).


Iγallen imarikaniyen yellan deg Filippin tteklen aṭas γef leqdicat ay ttgen Yiγallen Usligen (forces spéciales) imarikaniyen, imeẓla n wumel (services de renseignements), CIA akked tneggiwin (agences) timarikaniyin n wumel niḍen am National Security Agency (NSA) akked FBI ay yetturaren dduṛ d ameqran deg wanect-a. Tineggiwin timarikaniyin niḍen ay yettεawanen iγallen imarikaniyen deg Filippin nezmer ad d-nebder seg-sent USAID (United States Agency for International Development) akked Peace Corps ay yettgen leqdicay ”yettḥazen ulawen ed lbal” n medden, anamek-nnes ”ttεawanen” medden yeḥwajen war ma sqedcen timenγiwt. Ma d lecγal uffiren ay ttgen yiγallen-a, ad d-nebder gar-asen amgaru arlugan (guerre non-conventionnelle), timhal n wumel (opérations de renseignement) akked temhal tisnafsiyin (opérations psychologiques), yerna imdanen ay ttḥakaṛen lecγal-a d imezdaγen n tmiwa tubεidin ay deg cikken Yimarikaniyen ed udabu afilippini ”qeddcen akked yimenkaren (insurgents)”. Dγa s lecγal-a, s umata, ara ttεawanen Yiwunak Yeddukklen iγallen n Filippin akk-n ad nnaγen mgal n tnekriwin.


Amtawa n Yiγallen Inebgawen yeldey tawwurt i yiγarimen (civils) imarikaniyen (ara iqeddcen i lmend n weγlif amarikani n temḥaddit) akk-n ad sεun izerfan am wid-nni ay sεan yiserdasen imarikaniyen yellan deg tmurt-a. Iγarimen-a daγen, ttgen aṭas n lecγal yerzan inurar n tdamsa (économie), timetti, igen (armée), tadiplumatit akked tsertit, yerna iswi n lecγal-a akk netta d taruẓi n yifadden i medden akk-n ur ttεawanen imenkaren (insurgents), yerna d acemmet n umussu (mouvement) n yimenkaren γer medden i wakk-n ad qqlen ur t-ttamnen yerna ad ddun ed ad qedcen i yeswan n Yiwunak Yeddukklen. Imdanen-a ttgen daγen leqdicat i lmend n uεiwen n medden yeḥwajen, am trebbaε-nni n udawi n waḍḍanen neγ n tuγmas (MEDCAP), d acu kan, iswi n trebbaε-a netta d anekcum gar trebbaε tisertiyin n tmiwa-nni ay deg qeddcent i wakk-n ad gent timhal tisnafsiyin (opérations psychologiques). Yuγ lḥal, iberdan-a n ”yimenγi war timenγiwt n medden” nezmer ad ten-naf deg yedlisen imarikaniyen i usselmed n yimenγi mgal n tnekriwin (United States Army, (1975). Guide for the Planning of Counterinsurgency. Department of the Army, Washington, DC.).


Daγen, s Wemtawa n Yiγallen Inebgawen, nezmer ad nwali ass-a iqeddacen n yimeẓla n wumel (services de renseignement) imarikaniyen akked yimuzzag (spécialistes) n yimenγi mgal n tnekriwin tteddun s tlelli deg Wammas Ameqran (quartier-général) n Yiγallen Imsellḥen n Filippin, deg Quezon City, akked deg yegriren (camps) iserdasiyen niḍen n Filippin. Imarikaniyen-a ttεawanen igen (armée) afilippini ama seg yidis n wumel (reinseignemt), neγ seg yidis n teγwalt (communication) ed tlujistit (logistique), i wakk-n ad aznen tirebbaε timecṭuḥin n yiserdasen ara yemmγen γef trebbaε n yimenkaren (insurgents).


D acu kan, yuklal lemmer ad d-nessukk tiṭ s telqey γef ”lecγal n uεiwen n wid yeḥwajen” ara itteg weγlif amarikani n temḥaddit deg Filippin. Deg wemgaru-nni (ṭṭrad) ay d-yellan gar Filippin ed Yiwunak Yeddukklen [1899-1913], ajiniṛal Arthur McArthur (baba-s n ujiniṛal Douglas McArthur ay iqedcen, ula d netta, i wakk-n ”ad d-yerr talwit” γer Filippin), yenna-d, sdat n Congress wis 57 n Yiwunak Yeddukklen:


”Yiwen seg yeswan-inu netta d asselhu n yiberdan [n Filippin] i wakk-n ad naweḍ s iswan-nneγ isuddasen (stratégique). Yettunekf-iyi-d umelyun n yidulaṛen n wureγ i lmend n way-a. Γas ma yella imezdaγen n tmurt-a ad d-sfaydin seg yiberdan-a, maca ula d iserdasen-nneγ ḥwajen-ten. Nekk ttwaliγ yessekf ad nebnu iberdan ay izemren ad ṣ̣elḥen s teγzef n useggas. S way-a, mi d-nejmeε iserdasen-nneγ γer tenqiḍin tilemmasin, yerna imukan ibeεden ad ten-neqqen γer tenqiḍin-a s yireẓwi [n utiligṛaf, i lmend n ussiweḍ n yisalan], ad nezmer ad nefreq iserdasen-nneγ s tazzla akk-n ad awḍen γer yimukan ibeεden, yerna s way-a, ad nessinef i wezraε n yiserdasen-nneγ deg waṭas n yimukan”.


Iγallen imarikaniyen n Marines akked Yiγallen Usligen (forces spéciales) la ttgen lecγal n wumel (renseignement) akked temhalt tisnafsiyin (opérations psychologique) deg lweqt ay deg sskanayen-d iman-nsen, zuna, ttekkayen deg ”lecγal n uεiwen n medden” mi ara qeddcen akked USAID deg waṭas n yimukan n Filippin, yerna d Amtawa n Yiγallen Inebgawen ay ten-itteṣ̣ṣ̣ren. Filippin tessebded-d, zuna, Taseqqamut n Wemtawa n Yiγallen Inebgawen i wakk-n ad tεass aqader n wemtawa-a, d acu kan, Taseqqamut-a teqqel d nettat ay d tamḥaddit tameqrant n wemtawa-a, yerna tetteṣ̣ṣ̣er iγallen imarikaniyen ula mi ara ffγen i yiberdan s lejheṛ. [Asadur n Okinawa]


Imenγi mgal n Wemtawa n Yiγallen Inebgawen


Imezdaγen n Mindanao, ladγa wid izedγen deg Tama Tafulmant (autonome) Tineslemt n Mindanao, bdan-d yiwet n lḥemla yettkemmilen i lmend n ussuffeγ n yiγallen imarikaniyen ay d-yegren iman-nsen, ama ”s lejheṛ neγ s tuffra”, deg wuguren n daxel n Filippin. Yuγ lḥal, tillin n Yimarikaniyen deg Mindanao (tigzirt tameqrant tis snat deg Filippin), d ay-n ay yernan zzit i tmes deg tama-a. Seg melmi-kan, imezdaγen n tama n Bicol ssawḍen ad rebḥen aḥric seg yimenγi-nsen, imi ay ssawḍen ad ssuffγen 6000 n yiserdasen imarikaniyen seg tama-nsen, yerna ḥettmen-ten ad aznen kan 100 n yiserdasen imarikaniyen i lmend n ”lecγal n uεiwen n medden” i lmend n yiluγma-nni (exercices) n Balikatan. Tirebbaε am BAN Balikatan (Bikol mgal n Balikatan), Sumba Ka (Neṭqem-d !!!) akked Umussu (mouvement) Yeddukklen n Talwit n Sorsogon mgal n Balikatan ssawḍen ad ḥettmen iγallen n BK ’09 ad nnejmaεen γer yimukan n ”temḥaddit”. Deg tama n Bicol, medden gan-d yiwet n terkeft (caravane) ay d-yezzin i wakk timnaḍin (provinces) n tama-a i wakk-n ad gen ifadden i medden ad nnaγen s ljehd mgal n Wemtawa n Yiγallen Inebgawen ara sseqdacen Yimarikaniyen akk-n ad ṣ̣ṣ̣ren imenγi-nsen mgal n tnekriwin yerna ad afen abrid akk-n ad bnun isaduren (bases) deg Filippin.

Ifilippiniyen jemmεen-d ifadden ed lebγi ijehden i wakk-n ad ssuffγen iγallen ibeṛṛaniyen seg Filippin, am wakk-n ay ssawḍen, deg 1991, ad kksen isaduren imarikaniyen seg tmurt-nsen.


Tiγbula:

Docena, Herbert (2006). Unconventional Warfare. Focus on the Global South. Also see Docena, Herbert, At the Door of the East (The Philippines in United States Military Strategy).

Galvin, T. General (1987). Testimony before th US Senate Committee on Armed Services. Feb. 23, 1987.

United States Army, (1975). Guide for the Planning of Counterinsurgency. Department of the Army, Washington, DC.


Taγbalut: Bulatlat-Ten Years of the VFA: An Assessment

Amagrad aneṣ̣li yeffeγ-d deg 30 Mayyu 2009

Γef umeskar

Omar Mouffok d amaslaḍ (membre) n Tlaxcala, aẓeḍḍa n yemsuqqlen i lmend n uṭṭuqqet n yilsawen. Tzemrem ad d-tessersem tasuqilt-a anda ay awen-yehwa, d acu kan, yessekf ad d-ters tekmel yerna ad d-tbedrem ameskar-nnes (auteur), imsuqqel-nnes ed teγbalut-nnes.

URL n umagrad-a deg Tlaxcala:
http://www.tlaxcala.es/pp.asp?reference=8775&lg=ot

   

  


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